Sunday, July 11, 2010

Four Concepts -Nursing's Metaparadigm

1. Human Being (Humanity) - an integrated whole composed of an internal physical, psychological and social nature
with varying degrees of self care ability (chin/kramer, 2004).
-a substantial or real unity whose parts are formed and attain perfection through the differentiation of the
whole during the process of development. Has the capability to reflect, symbolize, and use symbols.
-when referring to humans, Orem uses the term individual, patient, multiperson, self care agent, dependent
care agent.
2. Health - health and healthy are terms to describe living things according to Orem, they are structurally and funcitonally whole or sound, includes that which make a person human, she define health as "a state of physical, mental and social sell-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity (p 184, foster/bennett 2001).Orem sees health as a state of well being, which refer to a person's condition of existence, characterized by contentment, pleasure, happiness, movement towars self ideals. The present sociopolitical climate influenced Orem to exand her definition of health to include the concept of preventive health care. She uses the terms health, health state, and well being.
3. Nursing - according to Orem its an art through which the practitioner of nursing gives specialized assisstance to persons with disabilities that needed greater than ordinary assistance to meed the daily needs for self care. It consists of actions deliberately selected and performed by nurses to help patients under their care to maintain or change conditions in themselves or their environment. Terms used: nursing, nursing agency.
4. Environment- the sorrounding of the patients may affect their ability to perform their selfcare activity. Includes two dimensions a. physical, chemical, biologic features and socioeconomic features.
a. Physical,chemical and biologic features: atmosphere, pollutants, weather, pets, infectious organisms
b. Socioeconomic features: family, community, gender, gender roles, cultural roles, cultural prescription
of authority.
Terms used- environment, environment features

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